Forum: Penyatuan Ilmu Kemajuan Sejagat

The Unity of Natural and Sociocultural History as a Base for the Unity of All Sciences and Humanities

Dealing with one part of the so characterized world means to also deal with the entire unity, because there is no part which is independent from all other integral and interconnected parts of the world. It should be noted that all parts are both to a certain extent different and to a certain degree independent from one another. This is a fact which analytically justifies their separate treatment as different subjects of the respective different sciences and humanities.

On the other hand, every part has features that result from the natural and sociocultural interactive processes whose interdependent parts are mutually influencing one another. These parts are in fact so interdependent that their individual characteristics are determined by the characteristics of others. Every part is therefore deeper and broader understood by the respective sciences or humanities, if the subject of inquiries is not limited to a single part, but rather extends to consider the unity of the world.

Overview of the historical roots and debates around the globe about the knowledge of thought and society, believing that understanding the historical trajectories can lead to a better apprehension of current and future, and more effective actions that shows knowledge interdependency (Philips, Yu, Hammed & El Akhdary, 2017).

The History - The Beginning of Mankind

Praise be to Allah, the supreme Creator, Fashioner of mankind, Sustainer of the universe. All is His divine will, and his command is executed immediately. May peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, who came from the noble Adam, created and fashioned from clay, and preceded by none.

The story of Adam begins, the first man, the first human being.  God created Adam from a handful of soil containing portions from all its varieties on Earth.  Angels were sent to earth to collect the soil that was to become Adam.  It was red, white, brown, and black; it was soft and malleable, hard and gritty; it came from the mountains and the valleys; from infertile deserts and lush fertile plains and all the natural varieties in between.  The descendants of Adam were destined to be as diverse as the handful of soil from which their ancestor was created; all have different appearances, attributes and qualities.





And God said to the angels:

“‘Verily, I am going to place mankind generations after generations on earth.’  They said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.’  God said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’” (Quran 2:30)

The First Man is Honoured

And God said, to the Angels:

“And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘I am going to create a human (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.  So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” (Quran 38:71-72)

God honoured the first humman, Adam, in countless ways.  Allah blew his soul into him, He fashioned him with His own hands and He ordered the Angels to bow down before him.  And God said to the Angels:

“....Prostrate to Adam and they prostrated except Iblees (Satan)....” (Quran 7:11)

While worship is reserved for God Alone this prostration by the Angels to Adam was a sign of respect and honour.  It is said that, as Adam’s body trembled into life, he sneezed and immediately said ‘All praise and thanks is due to God;’ so God responded by bestowing His Mercy upon Adam.  Although this account is not mentioned in either the Quran or the authentic narrations of the Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, it is mentioned in some commentaries of the Quran.  Thus, in his first seconds of life, the first man is recognized as an honoured creature, covered with the infinite Mercy of God.[3]

Abu Musa al-Ashari narrated that the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allah created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore, from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them." [Sahih Al-Bukhari]



Allah the Exalted said:

"He taught Adam all the names of everything."

Al-Qur'an 2:31

Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification.

After Adam had learned the names of all things, along with their properties and uses, Allah presented them to the angels and said: "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." [Al-Qur'an 2:31] the angels admitted their inability

"Glory be to You, we have knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily it is You the All Knower, the All Wise." Al-Qur'an 2:32

The Concept of Knowledge

This is a valuable effort that deserves our interest and encouragement. However, it can be fruitful only if the practice of rigorous analysis is kept up, with close attention to the precise definitions of the various concepts involved in forming a knowledge from historical, current and future perspectives.

From the beginning, differing strands of interest were apparent: one focused on internal dynamics of science, the other on external social purpose. Over time, the concept has appeared in multiple domains and become associated with overarching paradigms, such as structuralism, general systems, Marxism, feminism, and sociobiology. The concept is also a descriptor of synoptic fields, and a new transcendental form of science. It is associated with educational reform and critique of knowledge.

In the Islamic theory of knowledge, the term used for knowledge in Arabic is 'ilm, which, as Rosenthal has justifiably pointed out, has a much wider connotation than its synonyms in English and other Western languages. 'Knowledge' falls short of expressing all the aspects of 'ilm. Knowledge in the Western world means information about something, divine or corporeal, while 'ilm is an all-embracing term covering theory, action and education.

It may be said that Islam is the path of “knowledge.” No other religion or ideology has so much emphasized the importance of 'ilm. In the Qur'an the word 'alim has occurred in 140 places, while al-'ilm in 27. In all, the total number of verses in which 'ilm or its derivatives and associated words are used is 704. The aids of knowledge such as book, pen, ink etc. amount to almost the same number. Qalam occurs in two places, al-kitab in 230 verses, among which al-kitab for al-Qur'an occurs in 81 verses.

Other words associated with writing occur in 319 verses. It is important to note that pen and book are essential to the acquisition of knowledge. The Islamic revelation started with the word iqra' ('read!' or 'recite!'). With this view, an attempt is made to delineate the different shades and connotations of the term 'ilm, i.e., knowledge. It is hoped that this brief attempt will serve as a step for future groundwork for the construction of a framework for a better understanding the concept of knowledge.

Allah SWT have created Human through different journey and paths.





Prophet Adam A.S




The knowledge, language, values, customs and materials that are passed from person to person and from one generations to the next in a human group or society. The unity of knowledge is one of the grand ideas of intellectual history and the history of scientific thought. The unity of the world as a unity of the history of nature and mankind is reflected in the constantly growing amount of different sciences that reflect this underlying unity.

We are discussing an issue of common research and common discussions productively link natural sciences to the social sciences and humanities. This can be understood only by an interdisciplinary scientific approach that overcomes traditional barriers between different disciplines. Integration of interdisciplinary links allow important and modern thought of how to understand the unity of the world, thereby revealing the interdisciplinary relations of arts, sciences and humanities. E. O Wilson (1998) attempts to drive philosophy out of its genuine fields and to replace it with a particular science or a theory of sciences. The unity of knowledge in the world is carried out in the expense of some natural, socioeconomic and cultural parts of the world.

Unity of Knowledge and Interdisciplinarity

So, where are we now?

The current heightened interest in transdisciplinarity is occurring in the midst of significant changes in the character of knowledge. New approaches have altered disciplinary relations, interdisciplinary fields have evolved, and new hybrid communities are addressing tasks situated at the boundaries of traditional structures. The values of plurality and relationality inherent in new social and cognitive communities beckon a truly human science of sustainability that incorporates normative issues and humanistic approaches. New forms of education are emerging as well, going beyond interdisciplinary programs to include problem-oriented research with stakeholders. Ultimately, a new "transdisciplinary attitude" is needed, capable of sensitizing all social actors to more comprehensive, inclusive modes of knowing and acting in the world

Today’s world envisioned all disciplines and interdisciplines coordinated and integrated to form mutual enhancement which allow new form of education of fostering the capacity of judgement in more complex and dynamically changing situations. In science, technology and industry, long-range thinking would replace short-range thinking. In cities and the environment, negative effects of technology would be reversed and a systems approach would replace linear modes of problem solving.

The interdisciplinary thrust towards unity has taken advantage of a number of meaningful epistemological results, which put in light the limits of scientific observations, incompleteness of logic systems, and unpredictability of many physical phenomena, as something intrinsic to the specific methodology of a given discipline. First, the propensity of many scientists to offer “philosophical” reflections when considering some specific theoretical issues, such as problems of foundation in logic and mathematics, the question of the whole of reality and of its origin, the research on the mind-body problem, etc. The second is the greater willingness of scientists (or at least of a relevant percentage of them) to take into consideration what anthropology, philosophy, or even theology, could possibly have already said on issues near to one’s field of research.

That scientific-experimental factors and humanistic factors are strictly tied to each other also emerges from the growing perception of ethical and moral issues, as if they were something intrinsic to scientists’ research activity, and not confined only to technological applications. The emergence of moral factors, however, should not be seen as a “limiting” or “conditioning” aspect of scientific activity, but can be accepted as the positive presence of a “surplus of humanism” hidden in the scientific undertaking.

A further way in which also in need is to develop a more integrated vision of knowledge that is recognized today. It is the awareness that all technology-scientific progress must be associated with a cultural progress; that material goods, education, professional training, and intellectual resources are all important for human progress, and they need to be made available all together.

Technology-scientific knowledge claims to be integrated with reflection of an ethical nature (cf. Gismondi, 1999) or, at least, with the collaboration of the human sciences. Issues such as bio-technologies, preservation of the environment or health care, have recently urged attention to this need. The cultural and religious inheritance of people and nations, whose influence on the consciences of billions of men and women, and on many aspects of social life, is, in this respect, also crucial. Perhaps, the question is not that of asking science and technology for solving all human problems, but rather that of training scientists and technicians to have a humanistic sensitivity.


Hadorn, G. H. (2004). Unity of knowledge in transdisciplinary research for sustainability. Encyclopedia of Life Support System (EOLSS).

Ibn Katheer.


Phillips, F., Yu, C. Y., Hameed, T., & El Akhdary, M. A. (2017). The knowledge society's origins and current trajectory. International Journal of Innovation Studies1(3), 175-191.


Saheeh Al-Bukhari


Saheeh Muslim


The Stories of the Prophets. Al Imam ibn Katheer

Wingens, M. (2008). INTEGRATING KNOWLEDGE IN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT. Unity of Knowledge (in Transdisciplinary Research for Sustainability)-Volume I, 128.